Study MBBS in China 58 Universities

List of MBBS Certifications

0The South African Medical Association

"The South African Medical Association" accreditation is set for students who came from South Africa. The history of SAMA goes back to the 19th century when doctors practising in the then large and thriving towns of South Africa, mainly Cape Town, Grahamstown, Durban, Pietermaritzburg and Kimberley, formed their own associations as branches of the British Medical Association. It was only in 1927 that these branches, by this stage spread throughout the country, were brought together and constituted as the national Medical Association of South Africa (MASA). Next major and most significant development in SAMA’s history was the unification of the fragmented, pre-democracy medical groups prompting the formal reconstitution of the SA Medical Association as we know it today on 21 May 1998. Our Objective To represent doctors with authority and credibility in all matters concerning their interests in the health care environment  To promote the integrity and image of the medical profession  To develop medical leadership and skills  To provide doctors with knowledge relevant to the demands of medical practice  To promote medical education, research and academic excellence  To encourage involvement in health promotion and education  To influence the health care environment to meet the needs and expectations of the community by promoting improvements to health reform, policy and legislation.

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1Singapore Medical Council

"Singapore Medical Council" (SMC) accreditation is set for students who come from Singapore. The Singapore Medical Council (SMC), a statutory board under the Ministry of Health, maintains the Register of Medical Practitioners in Singapore, administers the compulsory continuing medical education (CME) programme and also governs and regulates the professional conduct and ethics of registered medical practitioners. In our efforts to ensure that doctors are keeping abreast of medical advances, the Council has implemented compulsory CME with effect from 1 January 2003. Functions of the Singapore Medical Council 1.Keep and maintain registers of registered medical practitioners; 2.Approve or reject applications for medical registration under the MRA or to approve any such application subject to such restrictions as it may think fit; 3.Issue practising certificates to registered medical practitioners; 4.Make recommendations to the appropriate authorities on the courses of instructions and examinations leading to the Singapore degree; 5.Make recommendations to the appropriate authorities for the training and education of registered medical practitioners; 6.Determine and regulate the conduct and ethics of registered medical practitioners; and 7.Generally do all such acts and matters and things as are necessary to be carried out under the MRA.

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2Liaison Committee on Medical Education

Liaison Committee on Medical Education(LCME)

Introduction
Medical education programs leading to the MD degree in the United States and Canada are accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME). The LCME's scope is limited to complete and independent medical education programs whose students are geographically located in the United States or Canada for their education and that are operated by universities or medical schools chartered in the United States or Canada.

LCME accreditation is a voluntary, peer-review process of quality assurance that determines whether the program meets established standards. This process also fosters institutional and program improvement. To achieve and maintain accreditation, a medical education program leading to the MD degree in the U.S. and Canada must meet the LCME accreditation standards contained in the document Functions and Structure of a Medical School. Programs are required to demonstrate that their graduates exhibit general professional competencies that are appropriate for entry to the next stage of their training and that serve as the foundation for lifelong learning and proficient medical care. While recognizing the existence and appropriateness of diverse institutional missions and educational objectives, the LCME subscribes to the proposition that local circumstances do not justify accreditation of a substandard program of medical education leading to the MD degree.
 
Accreditation by the LCME establishes eligibility for selected federal grants and programs, including Title VII funding administered by the Public Health Service. Most state boards of licensure require that U.S. medical schools be accredited by the LCME, as a condition for licensure of their graduates. Eligibility of U.S. students to take the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) requires LCME accreditation of their school. Graduates of LCME-accredited schools are eligible for residency programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME).

 

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3Australian Medical Council

Australian Medical Council(AMC)

The AMC’s purpose is to ensure that standards of education, training and assessment of the medical profession promote and protect the health of the Australian community.
The Australian Medical Council (AMC) is an independent national standards body for medical education and training.
The AMC:

  • acts as an external accreditation entity for the purposes of the Health Practitioner Regulation National Law
  • develops accreditation standards, policies and procedures for medical programs of study based predominantly in Australia and New Zealand and for assessment of international medical graduates for registration in Australia
  • assesses, using the approved accreditation standards, medical programs and the institutions that provide them – both those leading to general registration and those leading to specialist registration of the graduates to practise medicine in Australia
  • assesses other countries’ examining and accrediting authorities to decide whether persons who successfully complete the examinations or programs of study conducted or accredited by those authorities have the knowledge, clinical skills and professional attributes necessary to practise medicine in Australia
  • assesses the knowledge, clinical skills and professional attributes of overseas qualified medical practitioners seeking registration to practise medicine in Australia
  • assesses the case for recognition of medical specialties.

The AMC does not:

  • register doctors, which is a function of the Medical Board of Australia (MBA)
  • have responsibility for medical employment in Australia
  • make decisions regarding Australia's medical workforce
  • process applications for medical training in Australia
  • provide continuing medical education courses or other medical training.

 

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4General Medical Council

General Medical Council(GMC)
Introduction
We protect, promote and maintain the health and safety of the public by making sure that doctors follow proper standards of medical practice.
We have four main functions.
Keeping up-to-date registers of qualified doctors.
Fostering good medical practice.
Promoting high standards of medical education and training.
Dealing firmly and fairly with doctors whose fitness to practise is in doubt.
We protect the public.
We are the independent regulator for doctors in the UK.
Our legal purpose is to protect, promote and maintain the health and safety of the public by making sure that doctors meet our standards for good medical practice.
We do that by controlling entry to the medical register and setting the standards for medical schools and postgraduate education and training. We also determine the principles and values that underpin good medical practice and we take action when those standards are not met.
We have strong and effective legal powers designed to maintain the standards that the public have a right to expect from doctors. We are not here to protect the medical profession – their interests are protected by others. Our job is to protect patients.
When any doctor fails to meet our standards, we will act to protect patients from harm – if necessary, we will remove the doctor from our register and remove their right to practise medicine.
We’re independent and accountable
Patients’interests are best served by independent, accountable regulation. We are therefore independent of the government and the NHS. We are independent of any other group or organisation and are publicly accountable for the outcome of our functions.
Independent, accountable regulation must:
put patient safety first
support good medical practice
promote fairness and equality and value diversity
respect the principles of good regulation: proportionality, accountability, consistency, transparency and targeting.
Our legal status
The General Medical Council (GMC) was established under the Medical Act 1858.
Over time, legislation has been introduced that defines our powers and responsibilities in the various areas of our work.
The GMC is a registered charity in England and Wales (1089278) and Scotland (SC037750).
Our governing body, the Council, has 12 members, of which six are doctors and six are lay members. The Council makes sure that we fulfil our charitable purposes and regulatory role.

 

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5Chinese Medical Council

Chinese Medical Council (CMC)

Introduction
The Chinese Medical Council, UK, CMC in abbreviation, announced its establishment on 8th June, 2004 at the Forum Room of the Chinese Medical Institute and Register, London. It is an authoritative organisation governing the Chinese Medicine profession and comprises specialists in the field. Its purpose is to collaborate with the government in regulatory issues and the safety of practice, as well as to protect the rightful legal interest of the practitioners. In doing so, it aims to promote the development of Chinese Medicine in the UK.
The CMC was formed after much deliberation which followed the Chinese Medicine Legislation Forum (CMLF) on 29th April 2003. The concept of a council which functions to regulate Chinese medicine and to ensure that safety and high standards are maintained has been explored in many meetings in which various organisations within the Chinese medicine community participated. This is a necessary step for Chinese medicine and a precondition for achieving collaboration between the Chinese medicine community and DH in an effective capacity for ensuring safety, quality and excellence in practice. The CMC will also be able to secure a positive future for Chinese medicine within the UK healthcare system.
The CMC, comprises the following organisations - The Chinese Medical Institute & Register (CMIR), The Chinese Healthcare Institute & Register (CHIR), Association of Chinese Medicine Practitioners (ACMP), Anglo-Chinese Medical Doctors Society (ACMDS), Federation of Traditional Chinese Medicine, UK (FTCM) and the AcuMedic Foundation. On 20th of May 2007, a special meeting was held in which the member organisations agreed to form a unified single federated Joint Voluntary Register (JVR). The Chinese Medicine Working Group was informed in writing about the position of the CMC on various issues. The CMC affirmed its policy of unity and inclusivity in representing the Chinese medicine profession.
The CMC was born out of the former Chinese Medicine Alliance as a federated organisation. It is facing many challenges to unify the Chinese medicine profession in the UK, which is fractured and complex in background. To achieve consensus in the merging of members as a single Joint Voluntary Register, the council decided to agree on a programme of unity. The details of this programme will be implemented step by step to ensure cohesion.
Since the agreement on 20th May 2007, the CMC is progressing steadily towards unity and is maturing as a federated organisation to govern the Chinese medical profession. The DH Steering Group has published “Report to Ministers on the Statutory Regulation of Practitioners of Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Other Traditional Medicine Systems Practised in the UK” in May 2008. The CMC will continue its close collaborations with the government and other organisations in the UK and internationally to further its aims.

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6Medical Council of India

Medical Council of India(MCI)

Introduction
The Medical Council of India (MCI) is the statutory body for establishing uniform and high standards of medical education in India. The Council grants recognition of medical qualifications, gives accreditation to medical colleges, grants registration to medical practitioners, and monitors medical practice in India. The current chairman of Board of Governors of MCI is Dr.R K Srivastava.

The Medical Council of India was first established in 1934 under the Indian Medical Council Act, 1933. The Council was later reconstituted under the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956 that replaced the earlier Act.
Following this, the Council was superseded by the President of India and its functions entrusted to a Board of Governors. The present Board of Governors was notified on 13 May 2011.
Again vide Govt. of India notification, the Council re-constituted and functioning currently.

The main functions of the Medical Council of India are the following:
1.Establishment and maintenance of uniform standards for undergraduate medical education.
(There are concerns regarding the MCI's alleged discrimination towards foreign medical graduates and private medical college graduates.)
2.Regulation of postgraduate medical education in medical colleges accredited by it. (The National Board of Examinations is another statutory body for postgraduate medical education in India).
3.Recognition of medical qualifications granted by medical institutions in India.
4.Recognition of foreign medical qualifications in India.
5.Accreditation of medical colleges.
(Always on monetary considerations, it is alleged, with private medical colleges getting accredition even if faculties and facilities existing only on paper )
6.Registration of doctors with recognized medical qualifications.
7.Keeping a directory of all registered doctors (called the Indian Medical Register).
Registration of doctors and their qualifications is usually done by state medical councils.

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7Pakistan Medical & Dental Council

Pakistan Medical & Dental Council(PMDC)

PM&DC is a statutory regulatory authority established under Pakistan Medical & Dental Council Ordinance 1962 as a body corporate. It is known and respected worldwide and is part of international community of medical regulatory authorities (IAMRA). Pakistani doctors are considered one of the best and are doing meritorious service in all parts of the world and that is a testimony to the effective regulation of medical education being done by the PM&DC. No Pakistani Doctor can practice in Pakistan or abroad without being registered with PM&DC or without being in goodstanding with it.
To safeguard public interest, PM&DC has been given a mission to establish uniform minimum standard of basic & higher qualifications in Medicine & Dentistry throughout Pakistan.
Brief History
Established by adopting Indian Medical Council Act 1933 on the recommendation of Health Conference in 1947.(1948)
Re-organized under P.M.C. Act of 1951. (1951)
West Pakistan Medical Council was created on the formation of West Pakistan by merging Sindh & Punjab Medical Councils. (1957)
The Council was re-constituted under Medical & Dental Council Ordinance 1962, and Provincial Medical Councils were dissolved. (1962)
The Medical & Dental Council (Amendment) Act. (1973)
(The Lapsed)The Medical & Dental Council (Amendment) Ordinance(lapsed on September 24,1999). (25th May 1999)
Functions & Duties Of PM&DC
For uniform application across Pakistan. PM&DC has been given a mandate to:
prescribe a uniform minimum standard of courses of training for obtaining graduate and post graduate medical and dental qualifications.
prescribe minimum requirements for the content and duration of graduate and post graduate medical and dental courses of study.
prescribe the conditions for admission of courses of training as aforesaid.
prescribe minimum qualification and experience required of teachers for appointment in medical and dental institutions.
prescribe the standards of examinations, methods of conducting the examinations.
prescribe the qualifications, and experience required of examiners for professional examinations.
Register Faculty and Students of Medical & Dental Institutions
Maintains the Register of Medical & Dental Practitioners.
Inspect and formulate recommendations regarding recognition of Medical & Dental Institutions for training of undergraduate & postgraduate qualification.
Inspect undergraduate & postgraduate examination for standardization.
Decide cases against registered聽 practitioners for infamous conduct and professional negligence.
Inspect and approve of Hospitals for House Job.
Prescribe guidelines for Medical & Dental Journals.
Issue experience certificates to faculty
Set up of schemes of reciprocity with other countries and medical regulatory authorities

 

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8Sri Lanka Medical Council

The SRI LANKA MEDICAL COUNCIL is a statutory body established for the purpose of protecting health care seekers by ensuring the maintenance of academic and professional standards, discipline and ethical practice by health professionals who are registered with it.

As presently constituted the Council has representation from medical faculties of the state universities as well as from professionals in the state and private sector.
It is a body corporate having perpetual succession and a common seal.

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9Nepal Medical Council

Nepal Medical Council(NMC)

Introduction
It was at the time of the First All Nepal Medical Conference in 1963 that the Nepal Medical Association (NMA) requested by way of a resolution to HMG/N that a Nepal Medical Council Act and a Drug Control Act be passed. The Nepal Medical Council Act was ultimately passed in February, 1964. A notification which appeared in the Nepal Gazette of Bhadra 28th, 2022 BS stated:
Under the powers delegated by Subclause (3) of Clause (1) of the Nepal Medical Council Act, 2020 BS, His Majesty's Government has enforced the following Clauses 2,3,4,5,6,7,8, 10,11,12, 31,32 and 33.
The Council consisted initially of nine members viz. four elected by the NMA, and three nominated. The President of NMA was ex-officio member and the Director of Health Services was the first Chairman. The same notification went on to state that Mr. Bimal Raj Basnyat, then a section officer in the Health Services was the Registrar of the Council.
The first amendment to the Act was in 2044 BS when the composition was enlarged to 17 members with Dean of the IOM being ex-officio member. It also had more elected members than nominated, with a nominated lay person as a member too. A second amendment to the Act was in 2047 BS. The Nepal Medical Council has passed a Code of Ethics which all doctors who register are required to sign and then subsequently keep as guidance for behaviour in their future practices. Proposal for further amendments to the Act in view of the increased number of medical schools and also because of the starting of post graduate education is in process. Guidelines regarding the establishment of medical and dental colleges, forms if internship, have been laid down.
In celebrating the thirty years of its establishment, the NMC together with the NMA held on 13th & 14th Sept. '95, a two day seminar with the theme "Medical Education for the coming Century" On the subsequent two days a workshop on "Policy and the Development of Medical Education" was also conducted. A book entitled Medical Education in Nepal was brought out on the occasion. A third amendment of the Act increased the membership to twenty five. A subsequent change in the act has made it 19.

FUNCTION
* To determine the qualification of doctors and to provide registration certificate by taking licensing examination for new doctors.
* To give recognition to medical institutions for providing formal studies in medical science and training.
* To formulate policies related to curriculum, admission, term and examination system of teaching institute of medical education and to make recommendation for cancellation of registration and approved by renewing and evaluating such system/procedure.
* To formulate necessary policies and to make Code of Conduct to run doctors profession smoothly.
Other
* Active participation in making National Health Policy.

 

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10Saudi Commission for Health Specialties

Saudi Commission for Health Specialties(SCFHS)

In 1403 AH, a Royal Order was issued approving the Statute of the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties (SCFHS). SCFHS is responsible for supervising and evaluating training programs, as well as setting controls and standards for the practice of health professions. SCFHS launched its work through its competent supervisory, executive and specialist boards and committees. To date, the number of adopted programs exceeded 37.
Based in Riyadh, SCFHS was established by Royal Decree No. M/2, dated 6/2/1413 AH. SCFHS is a scientific Commission which has legal personality, and its
Headquarter is located in the Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh, with several branches across the Kingdom (Commission branches).
 
SCFHS aims to improve professional performance, develop and encourage skills, and enrich scientific theory and practice in the different health-related fields, by:
Developing, approving and supervising professional health-related programs, and developing sustained medical education programs for health-related disciplines, in line with the general educational framework.
Forming, supervising and approving the recommendation of the health-scientific boards and sub-committees needed to carry out the tasks assigned to SCFHS.
Evaluating and recognizing health institutions for the purposes of training and specializing.
Supervising and approving the results of specialized examinations through specialist scientific committees and boards.
Issuing professional certificates, such as diploma, fellowship and membership certificates, regardless whether SCFHS actually administers the examinations or merely contributes to them.
Coordinating with other professional health boards, commissions, associations and schools, inside and outside the Kingdom.
Developing the principles and standards governing the practice of health professions, including the Code of Ethics.
Evaluating and approving health certificates.
Encouraging scientific research, publishing scientific papers and issuing its own journals or periodicals.
Participating in recommending general plans to qualify and develop human resources in health fields.
Organizing seminars and holding press conferences to discuss domestic health problems, recommending adequate solutions and monitoring the implementation of recommendations.
Encouraging health-related scientific research and proposing research topics, as well as providing support and full or partial funding.
Approving the establishment of scientific associations for health specialties.

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11Malaysian Medical Council

Malaysian Medical Council

The principal aim of the Malaysian Medical Council (MMC) is to ensure the highest standards of medical ethics, education and practice, in the interest of patients, public and the profession through fair and effective administration of the Medical Act 1971 .
The MMC welcomes you to this website and trusts that the information you are seeking is available under the following relevant headings. Through this website the MMC aims to assist you in the following ways:
The MMC only registers doctors to practise medicine in Malaysia.
It does not:
Have responsibility over medical employment;
Make decisions regarding Malaysia’s medical workforce
Process applications for medical training in Malaysia
Provide continuing medical education courses or other medical training
Register health facilities or training institutions, drugs or medical equipments; nor
Endorse or recommend any doctors, medico legal advisors, expert witnesses or medical services.
The MMC is not able to offer information on subjects under the jurisdiction of other medical institutions or governments, such as:
medical advice
legal advice
information about job availability
hospitals for general or specialized experience;
opportunities for medical education or research;
the recognition accorded by other medical regulatory authorities or medical institution towards medical qualifications obtained abroad;
salaried employment, whether public or private;
scholarships or funding; or
requirements for specialist qualification.
OUR DUTIES AND FUNCTIONS
To protect, promote and maintain the health and safety of the public in the practice of medicine, the Council
The core functions of the Council under the statute are as follows:
Registers only qualified doctors;
Prescribes and promulgates good medical practice:
Promotes and maintains high standards of medical education; and
Deals firmly and fairly with doctors whose fitness to practise is in doubt.
To authorise registration of medical practitioners;
To maintain a Medical Register of all registered medical practitioners in Malaysia;
To issue practicing certificates to registered medical practitioners;
To promote, recognise and accredit medical education and training programmes and institutions;
To determine and regulate the conduct and ethics of registered medical practitioners;
To consider the cases of medical practitioners who, because of some mental or physical condition, may be unfit to practise medicine;
To review the competence of medical practitioner;
To advise and make recommendations to the Minister of Health on matters relating to the practice of medicine in Malaysia; and
To perform such other functions so as to give effect to the Medical Act 1971 as may be prescribed in the Act or assigned by the Minister.

 

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12Bangladesh Medical and Dental Council

Bangladesh Medical and Dental Council(BMDC)

Introduction
Bangladesh Medical Council was first formed under Bangladesh Medical Council Act. in 1973. Subsequently the Act. of 1973 was repealed in 1980. Bangladesh Medical and Dental Council Act. was passed by the Parliament on 09-04-1980 to provide for the constitution of Bangladesh Medical and Dental Council. This Council has its office only in Dhaka. The Council is headed by a President who is elected by the members of the Council from amongst themselves.

What it does
1. Recognition of Medical and Dental Qualifications granted by Medical and Dental Institutions in Bangladesh.
2. Recognition of Medical and Dental Qualification granted by Institutes outside Bangladesh.
3. Setting of scheme of reciprocity with foreign Medical and Dental Councils for recognition of Medical and Dental Qualifications.
4. Amendment of Schedules.
5. Registration of Medical and Dental Practitioners.
6. Registration of Medical Assistants.
7. Inspection of Medical and Dental Intuitions.
8. Withdrawal of recognition of Medical and Dental Institutions.
9. Maintenance of Registers of Medical & Dental Practitioners.
10. Maintenance of Registers of Medical Assistants.
11. Publications of Registered Medical Practitioners.
12. Penalty for fraudulent representations of registration.
13. Action against use of false title, etc. by registered Medical and Dental Practitioners.
14. Removal of names from registers of Medical & Dental Practitioners.
15. Action against persons not registered under the Act.
16. Approval of Journals published by different organisations/ Association.
17. The management of the property of the Council and the maintenance and audit of its accounts.
18. Prescribing a uniform minimum standard of courses of training for obtaining graduate and post-graduate medical and dental qualifications to be included or included respectively in the First, Third and Fifth Schedules.
19. Prescribing minimum requirements for the content and duration of courses of study as aforesaid.
20. Prescribing the conditions for admission to courses of training as aforesaid.
21. Prescribing minimum qualifications and experience required of teachers for appointment in medical and dental institutions.
22. Prescribing the standards of examinations, methods of conducting the examinations and other requirements to be satisfied for securing recognition of medical and dental qualifications under Medical & Dental Council Act. 1980.
23. Prescribing the qualifications and experience required of examiners for professional examinations in medicine and dentistry antecedent to the granting of recognised medical and dental qualifications and
24. Registrations of medical or dental students at any medical or dental college or school or any University and the fees payable in respect of such registration.

 

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13The Medical Council of Thailand

The Medical Council of Thailand(TMC)

Introduction
1921: Medical Association of Thailand was established (October 25, 1921)

1923: Medical practice was under MOPH Act

1968: The Medical Council was established under the Medical Professional Act B.E.2511or October 9, 1968

1982: The revised Medical Professional Act B.E.2525 or July 28, 1982

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14Medical & Dental Council-Ghana

Medical & Dental Council-Ghana(MDC)

Introduction (The Law)
The Medical and Dental Council is a statutory which is responsible for securing in the public interest the highest level of training and practice of medicine and dentistry in Ghana.  A Practitioner (doctor) is a person registered under the Medical and Dental Council Decree (1972) NRCD 91 to practice medicine or dentistry in Ghana.
Functions of Council
The Council shall be concerned with medical and dental practitioners (hereinafter referred to as “practitioners”) and shall be responsible for securing in the public interest the highest standards in the practice of medicine and dentistry in Ghana.

The Council shall in particular:
1.Ensure that courses of study and training in medicine or dentistry at any medical school or University in Ghana are such as can sufficiently guarantee possession of the knowledge and skill needed for the efficient practice of medicine or dentistry;
2.Prescribe standards of professional conduct;
3.Uphold and enforce such standards by the disciplinary powers conferred upon it by this Decree;
4.Be responsible for the keeping of registers of duly qualified practitioners.

Vision
An internationally acclaimed competent regulatory authority for medical and dental practice in Ghana, for the public good.

Mission
To secure in the public interest, the highest standard of Medical and Dental practice by:
1.Ensuring the highest level of training of Medical and Dental Practitioners
2.Determining the adequacy & quality of service facilities
3.Prescribing & enforcing the highest standards of professional conduct
4.Promoting the Cont. Med. Ed. of Medical and Dental Practitioners
5.Protecting the rights of the patients/Clients
6.In all these activities the MDC will work closely with other regulatory bodies and professional associations in the health sector to ensure the highest quality of health care delivery in Ghana.

 

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15Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria

Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria(MDCN)

Introduction
The regulation of Physicians and Dental Surgeons in Nigeria historically preceded indigenous statutory provisions for such functions. The first allopathic doctors to come to Nigeria were Portuguese. They came in 1472. The Roman Catholic Mission opened a hospital at St. Thomas Island off the Bight of Benin in 1504. The trans-Atlantic slave traders also came with ship doctors and surgeons who attended to the healthcare needs of slavers and slaves.

The Roman Catholic Mission established The Sacred Heart Hospital Abeokuta in 1865 whilst St. Margaret's Hospital Calabar came into being in 1898. Before the establishment of these hospitals, a Medical Examining Board in 1789 recorded doctors' names, mainly Dutch names which were followed by Danish and British names on its register.

Doctors of the Dutch West Indies Company went to Benin and treated the local people. Many of the explorers who came to Nigeria were medical men and we easily recall such names as Mungo Park, David Livingstone, Schnister and John Kirk. The West African Medical Service originated from the Royal West African Frontier Force, (WAFF) and in 1902, the Medical Departments of the various British Colonies, i.e., Nigeria, Gold Coast, Sierra Leone and Gambia were established.

The regulation of conduct of medical and dental practitioners started in that era in Nigeria with the establishment of the Medical Practitioners Disciplinary Board in the Colonial Department of Health for the medical personnel whose names were on the register of the General Medical Council in England. The Director of Medical Services, (DMS) was its Chairman. This was the position of statutory regulation of the professions of medicine and dentistry until independence in 1960. Indeed, indigenous statutory provisions came into being through the efforts of the first Nigerian Inspector of Medical Services, Sir Samuel Manuwa and these culminated in the promulgation by the Federal Parliament of the Medical and Dental Practitioners Act which became operational from 18 December 1963. This law established the Nigeria Medical Council, the first regulatory body for Medicine and Dentistry in Nigeria. The inaugural meeting of the Nigeria Medical Council was held on Saturday 24 October 1964 in the Boardroom of the Federal Ministry of Health, Lagos. Dr. S. 0. Awoliyi was the first President and members were drawn from:

The University of lbadan
University of Lagos
Ministry of Health, Kaduna
Ministry of Health, lbadan
Ministry of Health, Enugu
Ministry of Health, Port Harcourt
Royal Orthopaedic Hospital Igbobi, Lagos
Vom Hospital, Northern Region.
Private Practice
This meeting appointed Dr. M.S. Graham - Douglas as the Acting Secretary until he later became the first Registrar of Council.

The Nigerian Medical Council was succeeded by the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria, a statutory creation of the Military Decree No 23 of 1988. This decree, with the return of constitutional government of Nigeria is now known as The Medical and Dental Practitioners Act, Cap. 221, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 1990. The statutory functions of the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria are:

Determining the standards of knowledge and skill to be attained by persons seeking to become members of the medical or dental profession and reviewing those standards from time to time as circumstances may permit.
Securing in accordance with the provisions of this Act the establishment and maintenance of registers of persons entitled to practice as members of the medical or dental profession and the publication from time to time of lists of those persons.
Reviewing and preparing from time to time, a statement as to the Code of Conduct which the Council considers desirable for the practice of the professions in Nigeria.
Performing the other functions conferred on the Council by the Act.
However, by amendment viz Decree No. 78 of 1992 The functions of the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria were expanded to include:
Supervising and controlling the practice of homeopathy, and other focus of alternative medicine (naturopathy, acupuncture and osteopathy)
Making regulations for the operation of clinical laboratory practice in the field of Pathology, which includes Histopathology, Forensic Pathology, Autopsy and Cytology, Clinical Cytogenetics, Haematology, Medical Microbiology and Medical Parasitology, Chemical Pathology, Clinical Chemistry, Immunology and Medical Virology.
Since its inception in 1963, the Council has published certain documents as guidelines for registered practitioners and those who wanted to become members of either profession. Such publications are:
    
 
Guidelines on Minimum Standards of Medical and Dental Education in Nigeria. This was first published in 1975, and revised in 1993. It is now being revised by the present Council.
Rules of Professional Conduct for Medical and Dental Practitioners in Nigeria which was first published in 1963. It was revised in 1995. A new edition has been published as Code of Medical Ethics in Nigeria since January 2004.
 
The Council shall have responsibility for:Determining the standards of knowledge and skill to be attained by persons seeking to become members of the medical or dental profession and reviewing those standards from time to time as circumstances may permit.
Securing in accordance with the provisions of this Decree the establishment and maintenance of registers of persons entitled to practise as members of the medical or dental profession and the publication from time to time of lists of those persons.
Reviewing and preparing from time to time, a statement as to the code of conduct which the Council considers desirable for the practice of the professions in Nigeria , and
Performing the other functions conferred on the Council by this Decree or Act of Parliament.

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16The Health Professions Council of Zambia

Health Professions Council of Zambia(HPCZ)

Introduction
The Health Professions Council of Zambia is a statutory regulatory body established by the Health Professions Act No. 24 of 2009 of the Laws of Zambia.  The Health Professions Act continues the existence of the Medical Council of Zambia and renames it as the Health Professions Council of Zambia. The Act mandates the Council to execute the following core functions:
Registration of health practitioners and regulation of their professional conduct.
Licensing of health facilities and accreditation of health care services provided by health facilities and
Recognition and approval of training programmes for health practitioners.

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17Medical and Dental Council of Namibia

Medical and Dental Council of Namibia

Introduction
The aim for Medical and Dental Council of Namibia is to provide for the establishment and constitution of a professional Council for the Medical and Dental professions; to determine the powers, duties and functions of such Council; to regulate the registration of persons practising in the Medical and Dental professions; to specify the education, training and qualifications of persons practising such professions; to prohibit the practising of such professions without being registered; and to provide for matters incidental thereto.

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About MBBS

The MBBS program aims to help international students to study MBBS Engineering in China, and at the same time provides them with much specifically designed core courses and all kinds of opportunities along with various internships and graduation designs.
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